The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. It was no doubt a sensible decision as the younger generation of writers, speakers, language educators etc. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects … Such system is then regarded as the absolute legitimate and “correct” standard of language, and hence, is esteemed above everyday speakers of the language. Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. “Standardization” of Language in ELT Context. From a broader perspective, acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication and assimilation within a larger social group (e.g. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. Language standardisation, while useful and essential within a society, also has its drawbacks. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. Crystal, David. Elkartea, Garabide. ... View Item; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. These steps or stages in corpus development are also seen as paralleled by policy development, and some analysts enumerate these steps in language policy planning (Eastman 1983:12): . There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situationalvarieties. Accessed 6 March 2017. This essentially re-emphasises that language standardisation is a process, not an end-result. Lastly, a writing system is established to prescribe this language (along with official dictionaries and guidebooks). Critics. For instance, the use of double negatives – ‘that won’t do you no good’ – is deemed confusing, redundant and incorrect by the masses. The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. Deumert, Ana. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … Prof Feng’s presentation put this kind of standardization policy in context, explaining that minority language standardization itself follows a standard (and not necessarily responsive) procedure in China. Thus, those who refuse or cannot acquire the standard language properly are marginalised in the society, further widening the language gap. This paper deals with the concepts of language planning and language standardization which are in direct relation with the concept language policy. Deumert (2004) states that linguistically- oriented approach to language standardization have often concentrated on the identification of the regional and/or social dialects which form the phonological, morphological, S. Rayjashree of the Project on Modernization and Language Development at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, for what I … 19. Thus, it is crucial to understand that the standard language forms are not universal, and they can still have varieties across different regions. Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). This leads to segregation between those who speak language in the ‘correct’ way and those who do not, labelling them as outsiders (Milroy 535). Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. The British standard held sway throughout the world until very recently, when some other countries began to first accept and then to teach American orthography and lexical choices. Hence, we must remember that the language form chosen by a society is not necessarily because it is the strongest, but could be simply because it is the form used by the upper class and hence viewed in higher regard. Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. The process of standardisation involves both ‘ruler-makers’ and ‘rule-breakers’; the former makes the rules for spelling and pronunciation, in addition to selecting/eliminating the meaning of commonly used words. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. British Library Board. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as One example of standardization is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)GAAPGAAP, or Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, is a commonly recognized set of rules and procedures designed to govern corporate account… Here’s the formula for standardization: Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason. Routledge, 2000. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. Another quality of a good assessment is standardization. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. The standardisation of language does not only unify the various dialects and sub-dialects of Basque, but also symbolises the unification of a society with diverse, and presumably hazy, historical roots. We analyze a set of linguistic features with the aim of depicting the dynamics of intralinguistic and interlinguistic convergence as they relate to the ongoing standardization processes in these languages. With that perspective, we shall move to a unique, nation-wide territory where smaller-scale language standardisation took place: Basque Country. Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. A social history of English. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. (It is, of course, an open question as to how much, if any, standardization is really required. Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. Updated January 08, 2019. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. Among, 431 publications made between 1967 and 1977, only 3.3% of books published in 1967 had incorporated the new rules of spelling, declined and conjugated forms. The term re-standardization refers to the ways in which a language may be reshaped by its speakers and writers. (domains, timetables, territorial extent, etc.) Some might feel that the standard form of a society was chosen because it is superior to all other options. Ten years after the proposal was passed, efforts to implement the standard language was assessed and the results were as follow: In overall, it is evident that the majority believed in the good of a standardised language in Basque. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. However, resulting from this diversity was the lack of a cultural or political power to unify the nation (until recently), as so, the language community was divided into dialects, fourteen sub-dialects, and numerous local varieties that each belong to different communities within the country (Elkartea 21). This process brings to a language a uniformity and consistent norm and form of writing and speaking, and the promotion of uniformity and consistency usually entails the reduction or elimination of variation. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. Standardization is another scaling technique where the values are centered around the mean with a unit standard deviation. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. Learn more. Language standardization is often looked to by language communities as a means for language maintenance and strengthening cultural integrity, yet it may also contribute to varying degrees of linguistic discrimination and social conflict. Dudley, Leon. creating a type-able Unicode). Subsequently, where language standardisation found to be delayed, industrialisation came into play (Dudley 1). In this video, I will introduce the concepts of programming language standardization, and team coding guidelines. To conclude, as societies grow and evolve over the years, its language form will face similar changes. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a society has an existing cultivation of their own language and communicative methods. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. From a social perspective, language standardisation is dependent on how a society or social group chooses to regulate their language, and thus, what is standard to one group is not necessarily the standard to another. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. Modern trends for standardization Current orthography represents two major centers of standardization: British and American English. Following, the society must then express a desire for uniformity by filtering out any irregularities and establishing a consistent communication system between individuals. With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. New versions with new features will be released, and software teams will need to make important decisions. Vol. Hence in 1919, a Basque Language Academy, Euskaltzaindia, was established with the primary aim of formulating a standardwritten language. Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. An Example of Standardization and Divergence: Latin, The Creation and Enforcement of Language Standards, Definition and Examples of Acrolects in Language, What You Should Know About Creole Language, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Codification in English. shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). Authority In Language. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… selection and codification) as well as the social and communicative functions of language (status planning, i.e. In addition, standard languages are also discursive projects, and standardization processes are typically accompanied by the development of specific discourse practices. Accessed 10 March 2017. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. Located in northern Spain, the community saw themselves as autonomous given their diverse historical roots and cultural groups within the country. It is important to note that these stages are hypothetical, and can sometimes overlap with one another. Language varieties gain prestige when its speakers possess high social standing. One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). implementation and elaboration). In the end, Mitxelena reasoned that “the young are always right” (Elkartea 36), and since the young writers were in favour of the letter ‘h’, the spelling reformation was ruled. For instance, the development of a ‘standard’ form of language creates assumptions about the ‘correct’ way to use language, which is then understood to be ‘common-sense’ and common knowledge. Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS Bartsch, Renate 1985-06-01 00:00:00 * I thank Bjorn Jernudd, Monsur Musa, and K . Indeed, the process of standardisation is an on-goingone,and a whole range of forces are at work. They further noted: “…it seems appropriate to speak more abstractly of standardisation as an ideology, and a standard language as an idea in the mind rather than a reality—a set of abstract norms to which actual usage may conform to a greater or lesser extent.” (p. 19). British Library, n.d.. http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/find-out-more/received-pronunciation/. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. Milroy, James. Those whom have accepted and are familiarised with the standard language can engage in discourse (Deumert 2), so to generate knowledge about communicative methods and processes. For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Language standardisation is very much a social process, and is powered by people. Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Journal of, Thomas, Tiffany. Rihanna’s ‘Work’ Lyrics Use Creole & Patois, Totally Confusing Music. For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. The intentionality of reforming the spelling was not to simply standardise the language but to also unify all Basque under a common understanding. The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. Once it has gained general approval, the standard language is rigorously maintained through several means. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. in aspects of writing, reading, and speaking), while 80% agreed that learning and using the standard Basque was necessary for work and for everyday life. What Is Koineization (or Dialect Mixing)? It creates a new pattern of understanding which people could then apply in social settings (Mayr 5). A&C Black. Although there is a link between social standing and standard language, in that the upper class can influence the selection of language form (as enunciated in previous sections), one does not always translate into the other. by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. However, this ‘superiority’ may be a social construct, attributed to certain language forms because of the social standing of their speakers (Milroy 532). However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. Between features of language standardization upper class and standard forms of language and power: an Introduction to institutional discourse, as grow... 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